The implementation of Children's Rights is essential for effective development aid and cooperation. In this, civil rights treaties and development goals agree. Here, we present the most important of these declarations on the protection of children:
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
In the November 20th, 1989 Declaration of the Rights of the Child (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the signatory states commit themselves to "take all appropriate legal, administrative, social, and educational measure, to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury, or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child." (Article 19. Par. 1). In Article 24, it is established that "[s]tate parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children." “
African Charter on the Rights of the Child (1990)
After the model of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Organization for African Unity's Charter on the Rights of the Child came into effect in 1999. Both conventions exhibit deep similarities. The African Charter on the Rights of the Child is in some ways behind the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, as it stipulates that they have no right to social safeguards. However, it goes beyond the UN Convention in that the prohibition of dangerous cultural practices that impair the health of the child is normalized. In any case, the successor organization of the Organization for African Unity, the African Union (AU), signed the "African Youth Charter" in 2006, which came into effect in 2009.
Millennium Declaration and Development Goals (2000)
The Millennium Declaration, an agenda for international politics in the 21st century, was presented at a United Nations summit meeting in September 2000, in which representatives from 189 countries participated. It describes the four most significant areas of international politics according to the summit: 1. Peace, Security, and Disarmament, 2. Development and Poverty eradication, 3. Protecting our common environment, 4. Human rights, democracy, and good governance. Eight international Development Goals (Millennium Development Goals) were derived from the Millennium Declaration, including some with explicit relevance to Womens and Children's rights, namely: giving all children a chance at elementary school education (MDG2), supporting the equality of the sexes and strengthening women's rights (MDG3), decreasing child mortality (MDG4), as well as improving the health of mothers (MDG5).
Maputo Protocol (2005)
At a summit meeting in Maputo, the 53 member states of the African Union (AU) adopted the protocol for the rights of women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) into the 1986 African Charter of Human and Civil Rights. In the comprehensive catalog of protected rights, under the section "Elimination of Harmful Practices" (Article 5) the goal of fighting against every form of FGM is explicitly adopted.
Sustainable Development Goals (2015)
In September 2015 the United Nations General Assembly decided upon a new set of goals for a sustainable future. The 17 goals consist of 169 sub-targets. They were developed to succeed the Millenium Development Goals. However, they are more extensive and therefore more ambitious. SDG Nr. 5 sets out to abolish female genital mutilation and other harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriage.